Kidney Stones (Nephrolithiasis)
A kidney stone, also known as a renal calculus or nephrolith, is a solid piece of material that is formed in the kidneys from minerals in urine. Kidney stones can sometimes be prevented by certain diets, including a low oxalate diet.
Urinary Tract Infections
A urinary tract infection, also known as acute cystitis, is an infection that affects part of the urinary tract. When an infection affects the upper urinary tract it is known as pyelonephritis. Untreated urinary tract infections can lead to bladder infections or kidney infections.
Acute Renal Failure
Acute kidney injury, previously called acute renal failure, is an abrupt loss of kidney function that develops rapidly over a few hours or a few days.
Acute Kidney Failure
Renal failure, also known as kidney failure or renal insufficiency, is when the kidneys fail to adequately filter waste products from the blood. When your kidneys lose their filtering ability, dangerous levels of wastes and toxins accumulate and your blood composition may become out of balance.
Kidney Failure: What to Expect
Chronic Kidney Disease
Chronic kidney disease, also known as chronic renal disease, is a progressive loss in kidney function over a period of months or years.
About Chronic Kidney Disease
Intro to Chronic Kidney Disease
Treatments and Drugs
African Americans and Kidney Disease
Kidney School Audio Book
Kidney School Modules
How to Have a Good Future with Kidney Disease (Videos)
Progressive loss, or decreased kidney function is determined by a decrease in glomerular filtration rate, or the rate at which blood is filtered by the kidney. Decreased kidney function is detected by measuring the levels of waste products (creatinine or urea) in the blood. Depending on the cause, hematuria (blood loss in the urine) and proteinuria (protein loss in the urine) may also be identified on urine tests. Those diagnosed with kidney disease may experience increased fluid in the body that can lead to swelling, increased acid levels, raised levels of potassium, decreased levels of calcium, increased levels of phosphate and, in later stages, anemia. Bone health may also be affected.
Blood in the Urine (Hematuria)
Patient Information: Edema (Swelling)
Anemia in Chronic Kidney Disease
Chronic Kidney Disease – Mineral and Bone Disorder
Protein Information: Protein in the Urine
Diabetic Kidney Disease
Diabetic kidney disease, or diabetic nephropathy, is the disease that diabetes causes in the kidney. It is a complication of type 1 or type 2 diabetes caused by damage to the kidneys’ delicate filtering system. The kidneys contain millions of tiny blood vessel clusters (glomeruli) that filter waste from your blood. High blood sugar causes damage to these blood vessels and leads to diabetic nephropathy, which may result in kidney failure or irreversible end-stage kidney disease, requiring dialysis or a kidney transplant.
Diabetic Kidney Disease (Diabetic Nephropathy)
Chronic high blood pressure can cause damage to the kidney, resulting in hypertensive nephropathy.
Glomerulonephritis is a term used to refer to several kidney diseases characterized by inflammation of the small blood vessels in the kidneys. Primary causes are intrinsic to the kidney. Secondary causes are associated with certain infections caused by bacterial, viral or parasitic pathogens, drugs or systemic disorders such as Lupus.
Glomerular Disease Overview
Minimal Change Disease (MCD)
The Nephrotic Syndrome
Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR)
Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis
Membranoproliferative Glomerulonephritis (MPGN)
National Library of Medicine
Alport Syndrome Foundation
Polycystic Kidney Disease
Polycystic Kidney Disease Foundation
Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE)
National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases
Multiple myeloma is a form of cancer that begins in the white blood cells, also known as the plasma cells. Multiple myeloma can cause kidney damage requiring dialysis treatments.
Goodpasture’s syndrome, also called anti-glomerular basement antibody disease, is an autoimmune disease that causes the immune system to make antibodies that attack the kidneys and lungs.